The Royal Air Force’s Panavia Tornado GR.1 was one of the most versatile combat aircraft available to the Coalition forces poised to remove Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi Army from Kuwait. A total force of sixty Tornado GR.1s participated in Operation: Granby, the British contribution to Desert Storm, flying from Tabuk and Dhahran in Saudi Arabia as well as Muharraq in Bahrain. The aircraft were instrumental in helping keep the Iraqi Air Force on the ground thanks to its JP233 munitions dispenser system and flew most of its missions at very low level under the cover of darkness.
Naturally, with such a dangerous mission there would be casualties and six Tornados would be lost in combat;
Date: 17th January 1991
Squadron: No.15 Squadron
Pilot: Flight Lieutenant J. Peters
Navigator: Flight Lieutenant J. Nichol
Details: The aircraft was part of a formation conducting an ultra-low level attack on Ruma airfield with 1,000lb General Purpose (GP) bombs. During the egress from the target the formation encountered dense anti-aircraft defences primarily in the form of Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) fire before the Tornado’s Sky Guardian Radar Warning Receivers (RWR) detected several Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) guidance radars zeroing in on their aircraft.
Flight Lieutenant Peters took evasive action in an attempt to throw off the Iraqi targeting radars but soon afterwards their aircraft was hit by a SAM. The aircraft remained airborne and under control for around three minutes as fire consumed the starboard wing by which time the crew realised their predicament and elected to abandon the aircraft. Both Peters and Nichol managed to escape their aircraft safely although both sustained some injuries from the violence of the ejection. Shortly after landing they were taken prisoner and notoriously paraded on Iraqi television.
Date: 17th January 1991
Squadron: No.15 Squadron
Pilot: Wing Commander T. N. C. Elsdon
Navigator: Flight Lieutenant R. M. Collier
Details: The aircraft was part of a four aircraft formation conducting a low level attack using the JP233 dispenser weapon against Shaibah airbase in Southern Iraq. Despite intense anti-aircraft fire encountered all the way to the target the four aircraft managed to reach their target and carry out a successful attack before turning on a northerly heading.
A short while later the formation then conducted a turn east before one of the aircraft in the formation saw a ball of fire rising up from the desert floor. The formation leader called out for the formation to check in but received no reply from Wing Commander Elsdon and Flight Lieutenant Collier’s aircraft. The aircraft failed to return to its base and it was therefore concluded that the fireball was their aircraft hitting the ground during a low level turn. Tragically, both Wing Commander Elsdon and Flight Lieutenant Collier were killed.
Date: 19th January 1991
Squadron: No.27 Squadron
Pilot: Flight Lieutenant David Waddington
Navigator: Flight Lieutenant Robbie Stewart
Details: During a night attack against an airfield in South West Iraq with 1,000lb GP bombs the Tornado came under fire from defensive SAM batteries as the aircraft began a rapid climb from low level in the first stage of a loft-attack. Flight Lieutenant Waddington attempted to take evasive action but a SAM detonated ahead of the aircraft damaging the nose including the cockpit rendering Waddington unconscious.
Flight Lieutenant Stewart initiated the ejection at very high speeds resulting in both men sustaining injuries. After three days evading the Iraqis they were captured and detained as POWs until end of the conflict. In 2006 the now Squadron Leader Robbie Stewart MBE took to the skies in a Tornado for the last time in his military career. At the controls was non-other than Wing Commander Dave Waddington.
Some Russian sources claim that it was this aircraft that was shotdown by an Iraqi MiG-29. (see The MiG-29 Question below).
Date: 22nd January 1991
Squadron: No.31 Squadron
Pilot: Squadron Leader G. K. S. Lennox
Navigator: Squadron Leader K. P. Weeks
Details: The aircraft was carrying out an attack on the Ar Rutbah air defence site at low level armed with 1,000lb GP bombs. The aircraft successfully bombed the radar site despite intense anti-aircraft fire enroute but approximately five seconds after weapon release another Tornado involved in the attack saw an explosion on a nearby hillside. As the Tornado flew over the site a series of fires were observed and wreckage was strewn across the landscape. It would not be until the formation returned to base minus Lennox and Week’s aircraft that it was confirmed that their aircraft had been the one that crashed. The exact cause of why the aircraft crashed has never been determined however the Iraqi Air Force later claimed that a MiG-29 “Fulcrum-B” brought down the aircraft with an R-60 (NATO codename AA-8 “Aphid”) air-to-air missile. (see The MiG-29 Question below).
Date: 24th January 1991
Squadron: No.17 Squadron
Pilot: Flying Officer S. J. Burgess
Navigator: Squadron Leader R. Ankerson
Details: The aircraft was carrying out an early morning, medium level attack against an airfield in South West Iraq with 1,000lb GP bombs. As the weapons were released the aircraft was rocked by a large explosion from a proximity detonation of what the crew believed was a SAM that left the wings of the aircraft burning. The crew attempted to escape to the Saudi Arabian border but the aircraft was becoming increasingly uncontrollable until finally all control was lost forcing the crew to eject. Upon landing in the Iraqi desert they were captured and held as PoWs until the end of the war.
A post war investigation of the wreckage and the flight recorder from the aircraft discovered that in fact the most likely cause for the explosion that brought the aircraft down was that one of their 1,000lb bombs detonated prematurely as it fell from the aircraft. Shrapnel fragments found in the wreckage confirmed that the aircraft had indeed been damaged by its own bombs although why the weapon exploded so early remains a mystery.
Date: 14th February 1991
Squadron: No.17 Squadron
Pilot: Flight Lieutenant R. J. Clark
Navigator: Flight Lieutenant S. M. Hicks
Details: The aircraft was flying as part of a daylight, medium-level precision strike mission with Blackburn Buccaneers providing laser designation duties for the Tornado formation armed with Laser Guided Bombs (LGBs). The target was an airfield in central Iraq and less than two seconds before weapon release the formation’s Radar Warning Receivers (RWRs) detected Iraqi radars “painting” them. The aircraft dropped one of its two LGBs on to the target but then the Buccaneer crew reported SAM launches to the north of the formation’s position.
Realising the aircraft was under attack Flight Lieutenant Clark took evasive action and to increase the Tornado’s agility the remaining external stores were jettisoned. It would prove in vain however for a SAM exploded in close proximity to the aircraft which damaged the canopy and most of the cockpit instrumentation. A short while later a second SAM exploded near the aircraft spraying the wings and fuselage with shrapnel but Clark remained in limited control of the Tornado for a further two minutes although he was unable to contact his navigator in the rear seat.
When he finally lost all control of the aircraft he initiated the ejection and both he and his navigator were thrown from the Tornado before landing in the Iraqi desert. Clark was taken prisoner and it was only then he learned that his navigator, Flight Lieutenant Hicks, had been killed in the attack. Clark was held by the Iraqis until the end of the conflict.
The MiG-29 Question.
During and after the conflict a number of sources, mostly Iraqi and Russian, claimed that Tornado GR.1 ZA467 was shot down by an Iraqi MiG-29 “Fulcrum-B” flown by Iraqi pilot Captain Jameel Sayhood. The fact that exactly why Squadron Leaders Lennox and Weeks’ aircraft crashed has never been determined does add some weight to the claim however this claim has been dismissed by many western observers primarily on the basis that the Iraqis claim that the aircraft was shot down on the 19th when in fact the Tornado crashed on the 22nd. To further confuse matters some Russian sources claim that Sayhood shot down Tornado GR.1 ZA396/GE on the 19th flown by Flight Lieutenants Waddington and Stewart but the post-war RAF investigation confirmed this aircraft was lost due to SAM activity. Captain Sayhood himself would later be shot down in an engagement with the USAF.
The Iraqi Air Force is only credited with a single air-to-air kill during the entire conflict when on January 17th 1991 an Iraqi MiG-25 “Foxbat” piloted by Lieutenant Colonel Zuhair Dawood fired an R-40 missile at a US Navy F/A-18 Hornet. The US aircraft was hit and its pilot, Lieutenant Commander Scott Speicher, was killed.
Military fast-jet flying is inherently dangerous in itself and consequently there were three non-combat losses leading up to and during Operation: Granby.
- On October 18th 1990 Tornado GR.1 ZA466/FH was on approach to Tabuk, Saudi Arabia when the undercarriage caught the barrier which had been raised by mistake. The aircraft slammed nose first in to the runway and caught fire but fortunately both crewmembers escaped unharmed.
- On January 13th 1991, during a training flight Tornado GR.1 ZD718/BH struck the desert 140 miles west of Masirah, Oman after the pilot entered a steep turn at very low level. The aircraft lost height and crashed killing both crewmembers.
- On January 20th 1991, Tornado GR.1 ZD893/AG took off from Tabuk, Saudi Arabia for a ground attack mission. Shortly after take-off the pilot reported severely restricted movement of the control column and after declaring an emergency, jettisoned the external stores and attempted to return to base. Despite two efforts to land the aircraft had become almost totally uncontrollable and both crew ejected from their aircraft.