Crashed in Iran: Final flight of Vulcan XJ781

In 1955, the UK entered in to an alliance that with the benefit of hindsight seemed doomed to failure. It was known under a few names, it initially being referred to as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO) but was most commonly referred to as the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO). The origins of the alliance can be traced back to a year prior when Turkey and Pakistan signed a treaty of mutual cooperation on defence matters. Encouraged by the United States in 1955, a new agreement was penned that added Iraq, Iran and perhaps most significantly the United Kingdom however the US itself was held back from formal involvement until 1958.

In a nutshell, CENTO’s role was modelled along the lines of NATO in Western Europe with the goal being to establish a series of militarily powerful countries on the Soviet Union’s southern flank and to counter any communist revolutionary forces emerging in the Middle East. It was headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq until 1958 when Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim of the Iraqi Army overthrew and killed the last King of Iraq, King Faisal II. Iraq then withdrew from CENTO and the headquarters was moved to Ankara in Turkey.

The 1960s were a tough time for the organisation. It’s existence was heavily criticised for its lack of action to help curb the first Indo-Pakistan War, the Six Day War, tensions between Turkey and Greece over Cyprus and it’s seeming lack of ability to prevent Communist revolutionary forces rising up across the Middle East. Even the UK and US, who should have been its biggest supporters, often bypassed it when dealing with specific issues and countries in the region. The US had to especially tread carefully when dealing with CENTO because of the strong pro-Israel lobby in Washington which viewed the alliance with suspicion.

For the UK, its military bases on Cyprus were of high importance for the alliance with the RAF’s Near East Air Force providing a nuclear strike capability with Avro Vulcan B.2s from early 1969. The aircraft were operated by Nos.9 and 35 Squadrons out of RAF Akrotiri which was by then the only RAF station left on the island after RAF Nicosia was forced to close in 1966 to become Cyprus International Airport.

One of the advantages of being a member of CENTO was that British military units could undertake deployments to member states which for RAF crews allowed them to gain invaluable experience operating over the Middle East. It was not uncommon for the long range Vulcans to fly to Iran or Turkey on goodwill flights or to train with their respective air forces and one place they would regularly visit was Shiraz Air Base in south-west Iran.

Avro Vulcan XJ781 B.2On May 23rd 1973, one such visitor to Shiraz was Avro Vulcan B.2 XJ781 operating with No.9 Squadron which, having completed a routine training mission turned towards the Iranian base for landing. In this instance, the usual crew of five were joined by a sixth man, an officer from the Imperial Iranian Air Force who was aboard acting as an observer. This was not uncommon but often proved problematic for the British crews as the observers almost never spoke any English leading to safety briefings being conducted with pointing at things hoping he understood. The observers also liked to smoke during the flight.

All had gone well until it came time to lower the undercarriage ready for landing. While the nose and starboard undercarriage legs lowered successfully, the port leg refused to budge despite the efforts of the crew. Low on fuel, the crew had no choice but to attempt an emergency landing at Shiraz. The ground personnel at Shiraz immediately went in to action and began spraying down foam across one of the two runways at the base in an attempt to cushion the port wing when it inevitably made contact with the ground and reduce the chance of fire. With the runway sufficiently doused down, the aircraft made its landing attempt.

The Vulcan touched down on its starboard undercarriage with pilot Flight Lieutenant John Derrick fighting to keep the wings level before the nosewheels made contact with the ground. The aircraft ran on just the starboard and nose wheels for a short while before the port wing was lowered as carefully as possible on to the ground. With the wing scraping along the foam-soaked runway it began pulling the aircraft to the left, sending it veering off the runway and across an adjacent gully that was not marked on any maps of the airfield. The nosewheel fell in to the gully and was sheered off followed quickly by the starboard undercarriage leaving the Vulcan to slam down on to its belly before finally sliding to a halt. As the aircraft slid across the ground, the bomb aimer’s window in the blister under the nose shattered sending clouds of dust in to the lower deck of the cockpit while the navigator’s table collapsed temporarily trapping the two navigator’s by their knees. Aside from the bruised knees, the five crew and the Iranian observer were all unhurt and with the crew hatch stuck against the ground they left the aircraft through the canopy which had been ejected after the undercarriage collapsed.

Avro Vulcan XJ781 Iran Shiraz crash

Flight Lieutenant John Derrick in front of the crashed XJ781 at Shiraz (Courtesy James Rich)

A maintenance team from Akrotiri was flown out aboard a Hercules cargo plane and immediately declared the crash as a Category 5(C) meaning it was beyond repair or salvage. The Iranians agreed to accept the airframe as scrap but insisted that British engineers familiar with the aircraft remove key military components. Thus, after twelve years of service XJ781 ended its days being broken up on a dusty Iranian airfield.

In many ways the crash of such a symbol of British military power as a V-Bomber symbolised the ailing position Britain found itself in when dealing with CENTO. A year after the crash, Turkey invaded Cyprus in defence of Turkish Cypriots following a military coup organised by the Greek Junta. This forced Britain to withdraw all military support for Turkey and consequently CENTO itself which from then on existed only on paper. In 1979, whatever remained of CENTO was dissolved in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.


Thanks to James Rich, Flight Lieutenant John Derrick’s nephew.

 

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15 responses to “Crashed in Iran: Final flight of Vulcan XJ781

  1. I had no idea CENTO even existed. It’s seems that it’s existence was precarious even at it’s inception. The unification of ideologies with polarised views are often problematic, add to that, that CENTO was at odds with Israel and it’s US support probably sealed it’s fate. First rate flying by the crew of XJ781 though. Thanks Tony.

    Liked by 2 people

    • Thanks Rich, yeah like you until I started researching this article I didn’t know about CENTO. I very nearly turned the article in to one about the organisation. I may still do so but right now I am helping script a Top 5s documentary on World War II which is why DotR has been a bit lacking in content lately

      Liked by 2 people

  2. Pingback: Defence of the Realm – Royal Air Force | Defence of the Realm

  3. I hadn’t heard of this incident – interesting story! There was a similar incident in NZ with a Vulcan in October 1959, when XH-948 flew out here to mark the opening of Wellington’s international airport. When trying to land in severe crosswinds they damaged the port undercarriage and a fuel tank. The pilot, S/Leader Smailes, managed to recover back into the air and they then flew to RNZAF Ohakea (about 90 miles northwest) where they were expected to bale out. Instead, Smales guided the crippled bomber down on to a foam-covered runway – just like the Shiraz incident, but coming in on the starboard and nose-wheels… and (eventually) the port wing-tip, which slewed them off the runway. Wellington airport is STILL hairy for cross-winds – I’ve had some of my scariest ever landings at it. There’s a selection of stills showing what happened to the Vulcan on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-tkSvP_Bng

    Liked by 1 person

  4. I was born in Shiraz in 1972, I remember my dad who worked for the Iranian airforce telling me about the crash, I remember him mentioning the vulnac was an impressive looking plane

    Liked by 1 person

  5. CENTO was supported earlier by the Canberra Strike Wing consisting of 4 Squadrons, 6, 32, 73 and 249 based at RAF Akrotiri. It disbanded in Feb 1969 to be replaced by the Vulcan. The role was low-level Strike.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Hi Tony. I am building a radio controlled model of a Vulcan B2 and intend to finish it in the colour scheme of XJ 781. Could I have permission to repeat your posting in our Model Club Newsletter with the photograph on your post plus a photo of my model? We only have 30 members so it is not a big newsletter circulation. I dont know how Defence of the Realm is fixed re copyright etc.
    Thanks for a most informative post and others contribution – most enlightening ..
    Living in the North of England I used to fly my models at Woodford airfield near Manchester where the Vulcans were built. This was about 50 or so years ago and the hanger doors were always open so you could see the aircraft being built. In those days there was always some engineer only too willing to show young lads round the production line and let them sit in the pilots seat of the ones ready for delivery. the words Health and Safety and security had not been invented in those days !!! Happy Days. Harry Pickles.

    Liked by 1 person

      • Many Thanks. Will certainly give credit to all. In my post I said 50 years ago – please make that 60. I am now 75, doesn’t time fly?
        If I knew how to do it on my computer thingy I would send you a photo – can you help ? Cheers. Harry.

        Like

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