Sopwith Camel B7270 at Brooklands Museum

A collection of pictures of Sopwith F.1 Camel B7270 (G-BFCZ) on display at the Brooklands Museum in Surrey.

All photos were taken on April 5th 2016
Photos: Tony Wilkins


This replica aircraft is representative of Sopwith Camel B7270 of No.209 Squadron, RAF, the machine which Captain Roy Brown flew when he was officially credited with downing Baron Manfred von Richthofen known more famously as the “Red Baron”. These days however it is generally accepted that Richtofen was killed by ground fire. The aircraft was built in 1977 and carried the civil registry G-BFCZ during its flying life. The museum occasionally ground runs the aircraft which is fitted with a Clerget rotary engine.

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Typhoons intercept Blackjacks

RAF Typhoon Tu-160 Blackjack

One of the Tu-160s intercepted by RAF fighters yesterday (RAF via Twitter)

Yesterday, RAF Typhoon FGR.4s scrambled from RAF Coningsby in Lincolnshire to intercept two Tu-160 “Blackjack” long range strategic bombers operating in the UK’s area-of-interest. It is the sixth time in the last year that the RAF has scrambled aircraft from the UK to intercept Russian aircraft however as of yet UK airspace has not been violated.

Last year talks were held between British and Russian officials aimed at establishing better communication procedures with the Russian aircraft during such excursions. It came as a result of claims by civilian air traffic controllers that the Russian military aircraft were endangering civilian aircraft by not adhering to international flight rules.

Russian aircraft have a long history of probing British and NATO airspace. The primary aim of the flights is to give the bomber crews experience in long range operations and to test how quickly NATO defences respond to their presence.

RAF Typhoon Tu-160 Blackjack 2

Another of the Tu-160s intercepted yesterday (RAF via Twitter)


Grumman Martlet at Yeovilton Fleet Air Arm Museum

History: Fleet Air Arm Museum
Photos: Tony Wilkins

At the start of the Second World War the British Navy was desperately in need of a powerful single seat monoplane fighter. The new American made Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighter fitted this requirement. Initially named the Martlet by the Royal Navy they were re-named Wildcats in 1944 to align with combined US and British operations. 1,123 Fleet Air Arm Martlets operated in all theatres of war including Norway, the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Far East. However, Martlets distinguished themselves in the Battle of Atlantic and on Arctic Convoys providing effective fighter support from escort carriers and working effectively with Fairey Swordfish in the hunt for German U Boats. In October 1940 two Martlets of 804 Naval Air Squadron, based on Orkney, forced down a German Junkers 88A that was attempting to bomb the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow. This was the first victory credited to an American Built fighter in British service.

Grumman Martlet l, AL246, is the only surviving F4F-4 (G-36A). Originally ordered by the French Navy, these aircraft were diverted to Britain with the fall of France in May 1940. AL246 spent most of its service life in Scotland at Donibristle and Machrihanish. From 1944 it was used as an instructional airframe at Loughborough Aeronautical College and transferred to Yeovilton in the late 1950s.

In English heraldry a Martlet is a stylised bird with small or ineffective legs similar to a House Marten or Swallow. The Martlet aircraft is renowned for having a small and precarious undercarriage that could make take off and landings difficult. Intentionally or not, there is clearly a link between the heraldic bird and the Martlet aircraft.

Gloster Javelin


The Gloster Javelin was a tailed delta winged all-weather fighter that served in the Royal Air Force from 1956 to 1968. It emerged as a result of Operational Requirement OR.227 which outlined the performance the aircraft was to have. It was to be capable of achieving 525 knots in level flight at an altitude of 40,000ft and would feature a radar set from the outset (most nightfighters to that point had radar fitted later such as the Gloster Meteor). Armament comprised of the standard quadruple 30mm cannons which was how nearly all fighters in the RAF were equipped towards the end of the war as this was seen as being the best balance between hitting power and weight considerations. More revolutionary however was the equipping of four air-to-air missiles.

Gloster produced a delta winged design which was becoming quite fashionable in the West in the late 1940s thanks in no small part to captured German technology. Very quickly Gloster realized that their new aircraft was going to be a heavy design and this saw the engines changed from Rolls-Royce Avons to Rolls-Royce Sapphires. The prototype aircraft called the GA.5 first flew on November 26th 1951 but testing proved extremely troublesome with severe vibration troubles as a result of the hight T-tail. This would be an ongoing problem the engineers at Gloster would have to address but not before the death of one of the test pilots. Gloster pressed on however and when the RAF settled on the design the aircraft entered service in 1956. Nevertheless the aircraft was continually developed throughout its life as experience grew.

Apart from the trainer variant all fighter versions of the Javelin had the designation FAW (Fighter All Weather).

The original production version was powered by Sapphire Sa.6 engines rated at 8,000 lbf (35.6 kN thrust) each. Radar came in the form of the British AI.17 that could be used to train the four 30 mm ADEN cannons in the wings. The tailplane was electrically-operated but this proved unsatisfactory. 40 were produced to this standard but because many of the aircraft’s handling problems had not yet been ironed out they were flown under a plethora of restrictions.

The FAW.2 saw the replacement of the British AI.17 radar with the more capable AI-22 (the British version of the American APQ-43 system). The fitting of the new radar required the nosecone to be enlarged giving the new version a tubbier look at the front. Power to the tail was now hydraulic and a total of 30 were manufactured.

T 3

With there being no real training aircraft capable of simulating the new sophisticated aircraft a dual-control trainer version was produced. This dispensed with the radar and included a bulged canopy for improved instructor visibility. The loss of the radar seriously upset the balance of the aircraft necessitating a lengthened fuselage and all moving tailplane to compensate. The aircraft retained the four cannons as its primary armament but had to be trained in the traditional method with there being no radar. The T.3 served with No.228 Operational Conversion Unit at RAF Leeming.

The FAW.4 was essentially a FAW.1 with the original AI.17 radar set but featured vortex generators on the wings for improved stall characteristics; something that had plagued the aircraft since the prototype as a result of the high T-tail. Additionally the all-moving tailplane of the T.3 was fitted for improved control at higher speeds. It was one of the first widely distributed variants serving in a total of six squadrons.

The FAW.5 was a FAW.4 but with a revised wing design that allowed it carry more fuel thuis extending range for interception missions over the North Sea if necessary. More importantly however it was the first version to finally have provision for four missile pylons. Although a step closer to meeting the requirement in which the aircraft was born the pylons were never fitted operationally.

33 FAW.2s with the American AI.22 radar were reworked to feature the new wing of the FAW.5 and this produced the FAW,6. Again the aircraft now had the provision for four air-to-air missiles but these were never fitted in service.

The FAW.7 was the mark where the aircraft finally matured into the aircraft it was meant to be. Introducing new Rolls-Royce Sapphire Sa.7 engines with 11,000 lbf (48.9 kN) thrust each, a powered rudder and extended rear fuselage the aircraft dispensed with two of the four 30mm ADEN  guns that had been in previous marks but finally added four Firestreak air-to-air missiles. A FAW.7 conducted the type’s first missile firing in June 1960. A large number of FAW.7s were ordered but the early introduction of the FAW.8 version meant a large number were delivered directly in to storage.


Now that the Javelin finally had its long overdue missile armament the next step was to fit the Sapphire Sa.7 engines with reheat raising thrust to 12,300 lbf (54.7 kN). This made it a more capable interceptor at high altitude but at take off the fuel pump couldn’t deliver fuel fast enough to power the afterburner and resulted in an actual loss of power. Therefore the pilot was restricted to only using reheat at 20,000ft and above. Aerodynamically the aircraft featured a new “drooped” wing leading edge and auto-stabilizer that went a long way to improving handling.

The FAW.9 was the definitive version of the aircraft and a total of 118 FAW.7s were converted to this status by fitting the revised wing and engines of the FAW.8. First flying in 1959 the Javelin was already beginning to show its age compared to the new supersonic designs being developed in the US and the USSR. It was still a potent bomber destroyer however but retained the Firestreak missile which was being replaced by the more capable Red Top air-to-air missile on the Lightning and Royal Navy’s Sea Vixen.

(GALLERY) Gloster Javelin FAW.9 XH903 at the Jet Age Museum, Gloucester


44 FAW.9s were modified to undertake the relatively new practice of air-to-air refuelling by the fitting of a large refuelling probe which perhaps appropriately looked more like a Javelin than the aircraft itself. Later the aircraft were modified again to carry underwing drop tanks extending operational range further.